Physiology of appetite control is the study of the process by which an individual’s ingestive behavior is influenced by cognitive, sensory, emotional, and physical factors. It attempts to understand how eating contributes to body weight and adiposity, and it also attempts to understand the role of ingestive behavior in the regulation of energy balance.
The physiology of appetite has been divided into two basic areas: the peripheral and the central nervous systems. The peripheral system includes the gut and the adipose tissue. The central system comprises the hypothalamus, the dorsomedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus.
A peptide hormone called ghrelin has been identified as a major determinant of hunger and fullness. The peptide is released by the pancreas to stimulate excitatory primary neurones. It is also thought to inhibit the release of leptin, a hormone that suppresses the appetite.
WHAT KIND OF ANORECTICS ARE AVAILABLE
A number of gut hormones have been implicated in appetite control. They include ghrelin, obestatin, a-MSH, and b-endorphin. These hormones are found in the gut and interact with the gut-brain axis.
The perifornical and dorsomedial hypothalamus are the main sites for the production of appetite-promoting peptides. These peptides are produced by neurons that are located in the lateral and arcuate areas of the hypothalamus. These neurons are mediated by insulin and the Y2 receptor.
Appetite is defined as the desire to eat, drink, or otherwise consume a food. A person’s appetite is often high or low, and varies significantly from one person to the next.